Wednesday, August 26, 2020
Numerous individuals perceive that posses have been around for what appears for eternity. What they don't understand is that the numbers are expanding to stunning extents, there were 28,000 youth posses with 780,200 individuals in the United States (in 2000) and 20% to 46% of those individuals are female (Evans). Furthermore, what is much additionally stunning is, in Chicago alone there are 16,000 to 20,000 female posse individuals (Eghigian). These young ladies begin as ?groupies?, become individuals, and some of the time even pioneers of all-young lady posses due to inconveniences in the home, a requirement for cash, for the social scene, or in light of the fact that it is all they know. Allison Abner, who composed Gangsta young ladies, plunked down and talked with three young ladies who have all been in packs while, two despite everything are. These young ladies talk about themselves and numerous others that live in segregated neighborhoods, where the secondary school drop-out rates are high, just as joblessness rates (Abner). They are prepared to buckle down, and to accomplish, yet are not given the chances to do as such. They regularly originate from upset and rough homes and simply need something to ?fill the void...
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Musaabir Laiyemo Essays - Education, Health, Nursing, Free Essays Musaabir Laiyemo Educator Atkins ENGW 104 038 November 22 , 2015 Basic Writing Redefined Much can be said about the discussion among scholastic and basic composition. I accept scholarly composing is any composing that is accomplished for a class in a secondary school, school, or college and follows a specific rule. Basic composing would compose that is done to examine and scrutinize whatever the author d eems fit . This incorporates yet isn't constrained to books, plays, craftsmanship, discourses, games, or even an ordinary discussion. With respect to my major, nursing, basic composing would compose that it done to break down and evaluate a paper and comprehend the motivation behind why the writer decided to compose it. These two types of composing have several similitudes and contrasts that recognize what their motivation is. Scholarly and basic composing are two types of abstract composing that investigate and react to occasions or messages for various reasons in various manners. As expressed in the presentation, I accept that basic composing is composing that is done to investigate, study, and remark on the stren g th of the contention of an occasion . While basic composing is typically connected with being done in light of artistic work, it should be possible because of anything by any stretch of the imagination. Concerning my major (nursing) basic composing could be composing that is done to break down and analyze anything inside nursing as long as it identifies with the field. For instance, The Politics of Intimate Care: Gender, Race, and Nursing Work by Charissa J. Danger is a prime agent of basic composition inside nursing. This article basically inspects the historical backdrop of nursing and breaks down what made the field predominately female the manner in which it is today. To precisely reclassify what basic composing is in nursing, one would must have an information on what basic composing is and have experience perusing and composing papers on the theme. This type of composing would be done exclusively for the individuals who are in the nursing field and have a specific comprehension and information about the theme. This is on the grounds that it would contain a great deal of language that anybody outside of the field may not comprehend. While a specific type of basic composing would just be for those in the nursing field, basic composing can exist in any organization. A similar article that can be distributed in a clinical/nursing diary can likewise be distributed in an ordinary magazine like People or Us Weekly. Be that as it may, it'd must be composed contrastingly on the grounds that the intended interest group isn't the equivalent. Significantly increasingly normal and easier words would need to be utilized so the standard crowd can comprehend. In The Politics of Intimate Care: Gender, Race, and Nursing Work, Threat utilizes straightforward terms to depict early perspectives on nursing. She examines the idea of nursing being intended for ladies on the grounds that the real nursing activity is sub-par compared to medication (Threat 14) and ladies were viewed as second rate compared to men. In this way, it should be the ideal employment for ladies since they should be helpful, faithful, and submissive (Threat 11) or something the y have been their entire lives. These normally realized words help reinforce her contention on the grounds that the crowd gets them and would now be able to see her perspective better and take their own remain on the subject. Authors in nursing have an obligation to their individual friends to clarify the theme that they are composing on and give motivations to why it is significant and ought to be paid attention to. The essayist needs to ensure that the theme that the person is composing on is significant and influences the lives of various individuals. Then again, journalists who compose for crowds outside of nursing have a harder activity. These journalists would need to ensure they clarify what the theme is and why the crowd ought to try and read the bit of work. In addition, the author has the duty to evade language and utilize basic words to clarify their point while keeping the work genuinely compact. They would likewise need to ensure the composing is connecting enough so the peruser doesn't put down the
Tuesday, August 18, 2020
Sunday, May 24, 2020
Nick Cortese Research Outline Gambling Thesis: Gambling in society has detrimental effects to people in United States. Topic: I. There are certain types of gambling that people should be aware of. A. Gambling is any bet you make that involves chance, a stake, and there is a pay-off. Ã¢â¬Å"Here is the definition of gamble Ã¢â¬â to play at any game of chance for stakes, to bet on an uncertain outcomeÃ¢â¬ (Brown). Ã¢â¬Å"The following three elements must be present for something to be defined as gambling: a pay-off, the element of chance, and the stake risked by the bettorÃ¢â¬ (Brown). B. Many events could be considered gambling, but the most popular form of gambling is lotteries. Ã¢â¬Å"Some types ofÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦House of Representatives committee on Small Business, for every $1 the state receives in gambling revenues, it costs the state at least $3 in increased criminal-justice, social-welfare and other expensesÃ¢â¬ (Brown). B. Even though gambling brings in revenue to the state government, the government doesnt help the public when they use the revenue. Ã¢â¬Å"Critics argue that U.S. states should not encourage their residents to waste money on lottery gamesÃ¢â¬ (Update: Lotteries). Ã¢â¬Å"Also, critics maintain that lottery revenues do not significantly improve the quality of eduation in most states, and are often diverted to unknown or wasteful purposesÃ¢â¬ (Update: Lotteries). C. The revenue earned from gambling and lotteries just substitutes the funds for education so the money doesnt add to the education funds. Ã¢â¬Å"In many cases, they argue, lottery proceeds merely replace Ã¢â¬â rather than supplement Ã¢â¬â money that states had already earmarked for educationÃ¢â¬ (Update: Lotteries). Ã¢â¬Å" [State] legislators merely substitute general revenue funds with lottery dollars, so the schools dont really gain any additional funding, says O. Homer EreksonÃ¢â¬ (Update: Lotteries). Topic: III. If gambling were to be legalized , it would hurt the lower income people even more greatly. A. Low-income people are more likely to spend more on gambling because they want to get rich quick. Ã¢â¬Å"The Field InstitutesShow MoreRelatedSocial Problems Created by Gambling1185 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesSocial Problems Created by Gambling Submitted to Ms. Joyce Lim Senior Executive MEMO TO: Ms Joyce Lim FROM: Andy Tan, Executive, Ministry for Home Affairs DATE: 28 September, 2012 SUBJECT: How to minimize social problems arising from gambling As you requested on August 2012, our report outlines the findings into how to minimize social problems arising from gambling. Since casino started operations, casino-related crimes have been occurring on averageRead MoreSatirical cartoon analysis Essay examples594 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesbe analyzing an Australian Political cartoon targeting a current issue- Tony Abbott and his Asylum seeker policy I have chosen a relevant cartoon by Cathy Wilcox, published in the Sydney Morning Herald on the 22nd of December 2013. IÃ¢â¬â¢ll firstly outline the cartoonÃ¢â¬â¢s contextual information, after which IÃ¢â¬â¢ll explore the satirical elements used by Wilcox to persuade the readers of her perspective. Finishing with an evaluation of the cartoons effectiveness. Firstly, to the context of this cartoonRead MoreCharacteristics Of The Pigeon Racing2312 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesamount of prize money is up to several million Australian dollars in one season. However, risk also comes in that gambling is illegal, except for state-run lotteries and a controversy over animal rights. Pigeon clubs are under the risk of being inspected. According to a newspaper report, the Criminal Investigation Bureau (CIB) received an accusation of pigeon racing violating gambling laws and the Animal Protection Act from members of the Ethical Treatment of Animals US (PETA US). The Bureau inspectedRead MoreEffects Of Casino Gambling On The United States2737 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesCasino Gambling in the United States There is an extensive and constantly changing literature on the effects of casino gambling in the United States. As of December 2010, there were 939 commercial, tribal, and race track casinos operating in 38 states in the US (American Gaming Association, 2011.) In this paper, I will review the economic literature on the effect of casino gambling, looking at three categories: Price Sensitivity, Social Effects, and Location Determinants. This paper will exploreRead MoreThe State s Gambling Policy Essay2044 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagescitizens, while at the same time protecting them from foreseeable harm. In this essay I argue that the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s gambling policy should be a proactive one, that is, the state should do as much as it can to prevent problem gambling before it happens, while also preserving individual freedom. To first develop a state policy for gambling, one must understand why gambling should be legal. Gambling, in itself, is not morally wrong. It is difficult to see anything wrong with a person wagering their own propertyRead MoreOnline Video Game Is A Game Of Probability For Money Essay1834 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesThe denotative meaning of gambling as defined by the online dictionary Ã¢â¬Å"is the activity or practice of playing a game of chance for money or other stakesÃ¢â¬ (Dictionary.com). Online video game is Ã¢â¬Å"a video game which is or can be played over a computer network (now usually the Internet); (later) especially one enabling two or more players to participate simultaneously from different locationsÃ¢â¬ (oxforddictionaries.com). It is imperative to indicate that gambling is an online video game in this regardRead MoreMarketing Pl An Informative Sports Betting1945 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesMARKETING PLAN THE COURSE The topic of the new course to be designed is an informative sports betting guide for beginners. The purpose of the course will be to educate the audience on betting terms and responsible gambling. The outcome from the course will be an in-depth understanding of sports betting and an individualised, strategic method to increase the likelihood of success. The course will include an introduction to sports betting with an overview of common terms and responsible betting.Read MoreShould Gambling Be Legal?2890 Words Ã |Ã 12 PagesIntroduction Gambling, is often described as a simple form of entertainment, this form of entertainment has become an extreme of uncontrollable behavior to many people. There are many terms that describes a person who over use gambling, which include pathological gamblers, gambling addicts, or compulsive gamblers (Gamblers Anonymous International Service Office , 1957). One reason that the terms are being used is due the development of legalized gambling and an abundance of people are gravitatedRead MoreThe Relationship Between Hospitality and Tourism Essay1647 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageswhich serve alcohol. The Occupational Health and Safety Act is the overriding legislation that covers all workplaces and describes the general requirements that will ensure a healthy and safe workplace. It is a framework of responsibilities and outlines the duty of care that employers, employees and others have, to promote a safe and healthy work environment. The Food Hygiene, Health and Safety Act provides food hygiene regulations for people who work in the hospitality industry it reviews theRead Morelegalizing gambling983 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Legalizing Casino Gambling in Texas Persuasive Speech Outline Legalizing Casino Gambling in Texas Specific Purpose Statement: To persuade my class about why legalizing casino gambling in Texas is for the better. Thesis Statement: Legalizing casino gambling in the state of Texas would enhance society and will be beneficial for the entire state. Organizational Pattern: Problem-Solution Introduction I. Did you know that gambling generates more revenue than
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
The Moral of Arthur Millers The Crucible In the 17th century a group of Puritans from England immigrated to America to escape persecution for their religious beliefs. The white settlers arrived in New England in 1620, and Salem, Massachusetts had been in existence for about forty years by 1692. Salem developed as a theocracy. This was based on the coexistence of religious prayer and hard work. Entertainment, such as dancing, or any enjoyment at all was perceived as a sin. The isolation of the Puritan society created a rigid social system that did not allow for any variation in lifestyle. The Puritans felt insecure with the knowledge of the Native Americans in the forest. They felt persecuted and constantly under attack.Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦This definition is easily connected to the play. To start with, witches supposedly use cauldrons to brew their magic potions, and a synonym for cauldron is crucible. Not only do witches use cauldrons, but the word crucible also could have some metaphorical meaning. The actions in Salem were like that in a brewing cauldron, there were many heated arguments, and people were being Ã¢â¬ËstirredÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËmixedÃ¢â¬â¢ around like a vile potion. The plays central theme is the spiritual development of John Proctor. He changed from thinking solely about himself to thinking about who was in need most beside himself. He is made better and Ã¢â¬ËpurifiedÃ¢â¬â¢. The story illustrates how people react to mass hysteria, created by a person or group of people desiring fame, as people did during the McCarthy hearings of the 1950s. Many Americans were wrongly accused of being communist sympathisers. The activities of the House Un-American Activities Committee began to be linked with the witchcraft trials that had taken place in the town of Salem. This provided Miller with the catalyst to write the crucible. Arthur Miller himself was called before the committee in 1956. He found himself I the same dilemma as John Proctor, as a hero. He was asked to name people who had attended a meeting in the past. He refused to do so and was fined for contempt of Congress. Miller claimed it was the courageous thing to do in thoseShow MoreRelated Arthur Miller Essay1170 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesArthur Miller Arthur Miller, in his plays, deals with the injustice of societys moral values and the characters who are vulnerable to its cruelty. A good majority of these plays were very successful and earned numerous awards. According to Brooks Atkinson, a critic for the New York Times, Millers play Death of a Salesman was successful because the play is so simple in style and so inevitable in theme that it scarcely seems like a thing that has been written and acted. For Mr. MillerRead MoreThe Crucible Film Analysis1735 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe 1996 film adaptation of Arthur MillerÃ¢â¬â¢s The Crucible tells us far more about what modern society thinks the puritans are, than what the historic realities were. The film paints a one-sided and reductionist picture of puritan life and relationships, focusing on the themes of religious intolerance and how reputation is connected to the morals of a society. By examining the film on an analytical level, we can pull out larger connections betwee n modern society and the puritan way of life. One ofRead MoreSimilarities Between Apology Speech And The Crucible793 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagessocial injustices to drive individuals to pursue their own motivations. ComposersÃ¢â¬â¢ representations of the complex relationship between people and politics are influenced by various moral and social agendas, whereby a portrayal of reality and meaning is inherently subjective. Arthur MillerÃ¢â¬â¢s dramatic allegory Ã¢â¬Å"The CrucibleÃ¢â¬ explores the political and social ramifications of the contentious Ã¢â¬ËCold WarÃ¢â¬â¢ period in American history when the widespread fear of communism arose. Kevin RuddÃ¢â¬â¢s political speechRead MoreThe Crucible By Arthur Miller993 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesauthor is Arthur Miller, playwright for the famous 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s play, The Crucible. In MillerÃ¢â¬â¢s The Crucible, reputation plays an influential role in the outcome of the play. A major portion of the population is led to plead guilty in order to save their reputation, have their reputation ruined by pleading innocent, or ruin their reputations so as to protect others. Several of these characters are Sarah Good, Rebecca Nurse, and John Proctor. The first of multiple characters in Arthur MillerÃ¢â¬â¢s play, TheRead MoreThe Handmaids Tale And The Crucible1695 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIs Resistance Futile? What do The HandmaidÃ¢â¬â¢s Tale and The Crucible suggest about the nature of resisting and rebelling against social order? Margaret AtwoodÃ¢â¬â¢s, The HandmaidÃ¢â¬â¢s Tale, and Arthur MillerÃ¢â¬â¢s ,The Crucible, explore the consequences surrounding the nature of resisting and rebelling against social order. Resistance the refusal to accept or comply with something or to actively and passively fight against something. AtwoodÃ¢â¬â¢s new government of Gilead in The HandmaidÃ¢â¬â¢s Tale enforces unthinkableRead MoreFear of Witchcraft as Metaphor in The Crucible by Arthur Miller1161 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesFear of Witchcraft as Metaphor in The Crucible Ã Ã Ã The Crucible uses fear of witchcraft in the America of the 1600s as a metaphor for the fear of communism that was widespread in America in the 1950s. Arthur Miller wished to show that the attitudes and behaviour of the villagers of Salem were as irrational and ill-founded as the attitude and behaviour of the committee chaired by Senator McCarthy. Essentially Miller uses the 17th century setting to provide critical distance between theRead MoreCrucible Essay Example888 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesJustice and The Crucible While justice is meant to be directed with upmost fairness and equality, Arthur MillerÃ¢â¬â¢s film The Crucible demonstrates that this does not always succeed, and in many situations the forces of injustices are exposed. From different points of views, justice can be formed or destroyed. In the film The Crucible, Arthur Miller convinces his audience that reason, emotion, and character shows injustice throughout the social hardship in a Puritan community. Justice is one of theRead MoreThe True Tragic Hero: The CrucibleÃ¢â¬â¢s John Proctor Essay1044 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesand is living a lieÃ¢â¬ (McGill 4). John Proctor is one of the main characters in The Crucible. he is married to Elizabeth Proctor and they live in Salem. In Arthur MillerÃ¢â¬â¢s famous play, The Crucible, John Proctor represents a classic tragic hero because he is a well respected man of noble stature, he is conflicted because of his fatal flaw, and his downfall is a result of his own choices. First, in The Crucible, John Proctor is very well known in the town of Salem. Ã¢â¬Å"John Proctor was not simplyRead More Why The Crucible Remains Important Today Essay976 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Why Ã¢â¬ËThe CrucibleÃ¢â¬â¢ Remains Important Today For a story of any kind to have any relevance or meaning some 50 years after being written and indeed almost 400 years after it was set, it needs to contain themes and ideas that have been uniformly felt and experienced by people from all walks of life as well as continuing to speak to and have meaning to new and changed generations of people. Years after being written, Arthur MillerÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËThe CrucibleÃ¢â¬â¢, still successfully speaks to numerous generations ofRead MoreEssay about Why the Crucible Remains Important Today1015 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesWhy ÃâThe Crucible Remains Important Today For a story of any kind to have any relevance or meaning some 50 years after being written and indeed almost 400 years after it was set, it needs to contain themes and ideas that have been uniformly felt and experienced by people from all walks of life as well as continuing to speak to and have meaning to new and changed generations of people. Years after being written, Arthur Millers ÃâThe Crucible, still successfully speaks to numerous generations
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The United States is known for its big capital punishment or death penalty mentality. However, passions in the U.S. We will write a custom essay sample on The Death Penalty Shall Stay or any similar topic only for you Order Now are sharply divided, and equally strong among both supporters and protesters of the death penalty. The death penalty in this country should not be eliminated though. First, death is the only just punishment for murderers. Second, life without parole is far more expensive than a death sentence. Lastly, capital punishment serves as a deterrent for future potential criminals. All in all, it is important that the death penalty remains in the United States. When a murderer is executed, the message to the criminal and society is that the crime he committed is so heinous; he forfeits his own right to live. Justice for All states that juries do not impose the death penalty loosely. They continue to explain that the death penalty is imposed with a sense of protection and justice, not revenge (Social Issues: Justice for All). The death penalty punishment is earned as a result of the pain and suffering the criminal has caused on the victim and the victimÃ¢â¬â¢s loved ones. Ã¢â¬Å"For some crimes, it represents the only just punishment available on earthÃ¢â¬ (Sharp). Also, our society has nonetheless steadily moved to more humane methods of carrying out capital punishment. Many opponents of the death penalty argue that the cost of capital punishment is about twice as expensive as life without parole punishments. Although the upfront costs for the death penalty are in fact higher than the costs for life without parole cases, this concept flips as the years pass. Justice for All states that life without parole cases will cost $1.2 million-$3.6 million more over time than equivalent death penalty cases (Sharp). Another factor that opponents of the death penalty fail to recognize is the cost that branches out of life imprisonment. Keeping these criminals alive in prison costs money whether itÃ¢â¬â¢s for the food, space, water for the showers, etc. So, why spend the money for murderers who donÃ¢â¬â¢t deserve it? Lastly, common sense later followed by piles and piles of statistics has proven that criminals often plead for a life in prison rather than death. In the past it was believed that the death of murderers 1) prevents future crime or misbehavior from the murderer and 2) discourages other future and/or potential murderers from committing crimes. In the present, Paul Rubin, a professor of economics and law at Emory University uses detailed statistical analysis of the available data on the deterrent effects of capital punishment. He and his colleagues concluded that each execution led to an average of eighteen fewer murders (Rubin). Not only has the death penalty rid us of criminals but it has the future effect of reducing the crime rate. How to cite The Death Penalty Shall Stay, Essay examples
Monday, May 4, 2020
However, the extent to which the Democrats and Liberal Democrats, supposedly Liberal parties, and the Republicans and Conservatives, who promote themselves as such Ã¢â¬ËconservativeÃ¢â¬â¢ right wing-ers, adhere to these philosophies is arguable. Legislation passed by these parties is one way of deciphering the ideologies of each party, and whether each bill promotes either Liberalism or Conservatism. Primarily, the Democrats have been associated with Liberalism since FDRÃ¢â¬â¢s New deal from the 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s. Although the Ã¢â¬Ëtax and spendÃ¢â¬â¢ policies have become unfashionable in recent years, most Democrats would still identify themselves as liberals, with similar philosophies. Recent policies do support this argument, shown by the Democratic president Obama who, in January 2009, alongside a Democratic Congress, passed a $700 billion economic stimulus package. This is clearly identifiable as a liberal policy, reinforcing the statesÃ¢â¬â¢ role in the economy. Moreover, it was the very same congress and president who passed Obama-care, which regulates heavily the health insurance industry. We will write a custom essay sample on Parties No Longer Provide Ideological Choice or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page These are both clearly liberal policies, with the latter extending healthcare to over 20 million low-income AmericansÃ¢â¬â¢ who almost certainly voted Democrat, showing the Liberal policy of Ã¢â¬Ëprotecting the vulnerableÃ¢â¬â¢. From this we can see that the Democrats, certainly in congressional policy, pass liberal legislation. The case within the United Kingdom is a somewhat different one. Historically, the Labour party has been Liberal, yet in recent years it has become somewhat centralized, maintaining the stance of being the Ã¢â¬ËsocialistÃ¢â¬â¢ party. The recent 2010 election resulted in a hung parliament, and so a co-alition between Liberal Democrats and Conservatives was formed. However, it can be argued that the ideological policies of this coalition are still rather right wing, as the Conservatives have a larger proportion of seats than the Liberal Democrats. The legislation has also been rather less Liberal than the Lib Dems would have hoped, with them conceding on raising Education fees, and also the reform of the House of Lords. Similarly to the Democrats, the Republicans have shown much in recent years to call themselves an ideologically conservative party. The last Republican president, George Bush Jr. , extended tax cuts to millions of high and middle earners. The Ã¢â¬ËBush tax cutsÃ¢â¬â¢ communicates a key belief in conservatism that the federal government should be more limited, and that taxes should be slashed in order to stimulate a free market economy, clearly a conservative policy. In addition to this, Bush relieved the role of the Federal Government in some public utilities to voluntary and private sectors as part of his Ã¢â¬ËCompassionate ConservatismÃ¢â¬â¢ policies. Again, this is an example of republicans showing their ideological conservatism as they push to reduce the power of the government. We can therefore see large differences between the beliefs held between the two main US parties, with the democrats attempting to pass liberal rooted policies, whilst the RepublicansÃ¢â¬â¢ aim to pass conservative ones. It is arguable to state that Political Ideologies are aimed towards different classes, with Democrats, New Labour, and Liberal DemocratsÃ¢â¬â¢ Liberalism policies typically being aimed towards the lower and middle classes, with the ConservativesÃ¢â¬â¢ and RepublicansÃ¢â¬â¢ Conservatice ideologies being found more appealing by the upper classes. However, within todays society, it is noted that the class system is eroding, leading to an ideological confusion between the parties. This is shown through the 2010 British election results, in which a Liberalist Centre party (Liberal Democrats) and a Conservatice right wing party (Conservatices) had to join together in coalition due to the result of a hung parliament. This demonstrates an unclear ideological difference between the choice of 3 Major parties due to the lack of consensus within the Electorate as to who should be in parliament. This could be used to illustrate thus that there is no clear ideological choice through the parties, as there was no clear consensus upon a particular popular policy route. Thes parties have also been able to merge their ideologies (albeit with some compromise) in order to facilitate this co-alition, adding further weight to the knowledge that party ideologies, at least within the UK, are weak, and provide no clear choice.